Hydroxytyrosol is a polyphenolic compound found naturally in the leaves and fruits of olive plants in the Olivary family. Usually, small amounts of hydroxytyosol are found in free form in olive leaves and olive oil. Most hydroxytyrosol combines glucose with olinic acid to form oleuropein. When oleuropein is exposed to alkaline or acidic conditions, it tends to degrade to form HydroxyTyrosol.
Hydroxytyrosol has a variety of biological activities. For example, hydroxyTyrosol has strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hydroxytyrosol has inhibitory effect on higher concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while hydroxyTyrosol has no inhibitory effect on lower concentrations of staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hydroxytyrosol inhibits bacterial growth by disrupting cell membrane integrity. From the above, we can have a general understanding of the antibacterial effect of hydroxytyrosol. Therefore, hydroxytyrosol is often used as a medical raw material and food additive in medicine and food fields.